Omar Khayyam was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid. Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade.
Born: 18 May 1048 in Nishapur, Persia (now Iran)
Died: 4 December 1131 in Nishapur, Persia (now Iran)
Parents: Ibrahim Khayyam Nayshapuri
Books: Les Roubaiates, Nine Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, More…
Omar Khayyam’s full name ( Ghiyath al-Din Abu’l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami). A literal translation of the name al-Khayyami (or al-Khayyam) means ‘tent maker’.
This may have been the trade of Ibrahim his father. Khayyam the meaning of his own name when he wrote:-
Khayyam, who stitched the tents of science,
Has fallen in grief’s furnace and been suddenly burned,
The shears of Fate have cut the tent ropes of his life,
And the broker of Hope has sold him for nothing!
The 11th-century political events played a major role during the life of Khayyam. The Seljuk Turks were tribes that attacked southeastern Asia in the 11th century.
Eventually established an empire that included Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and most of Iran. Seljuk occupied Khorasan grazing areas and then between 1038 and 1040, he conquered all north-eastern Iran. Seljuk ruler Togralh Baig declared himself Sultan in Nishapur in 1038 and entered Baghdad in 1055. It was in this turbulent military empire, which had religious problems too because it tried to establish a conservative Muslim state.
Khayyam studied philosophy at Naishapur and one of his fellow students wrote that he was:-
…endowed with sharpness of wit and the highest natural powers…
The Rubaiyat Of Omar Khayyam
However, Khayyam was an excellent mathematician and astronomer and despite the hardships, he described in this quote, he did a lot of work including a book on music and problems of algebra before the age of 25. In 1070 he moved to Samarkand in Uzbekistan, which is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia. Omar Khayyam was supported by a prominent jurist Abu Samir of Samarkand and it allowed him to write texts on the performance of his most famous algebra work, texts, from which we quoted above. We will describe the mathematical material of this work later in this biography.
Tugril Baig, the founder of the Seljuk dynasty, made Esfahan the capital of his domain and his grandson Malik Shah was the ruler of that city from 1073. An invitation was invited to Khayyam to Malik-Shah and his Wazir Nizam al-Mulk asked Khayyam to go to Isfahan to establish an observatory there. Other prominent astronomers were also brought to the Observatory in Isfahan and for 18 years Khayyam led the scientists and produced excellent quality work. It was a period of peace, during which the political situation gave Khayyam the opportunity to fully devote himself to the work of his scholars.
Outside the world of mathematics, Omar Khayyam was known as the result of the popular translation of Edward FitzGerald, in 1859, about 600 short four-row poems of Rubaiyat. Khayyam’s fame as a poet has caused forgot some of his scientific achievements, which were very important. Verses of verses used in Rubaiyat were present in Persian literature before Khayyam, and only 120 verses can be attributed to them with certainty. In all verses, the best known is the following: –
The Moving Finger writes, and, having writ,
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it.